Within the small city of Grosse Tête, Louisiana, a Bengal-Siberian hybrid tiger named Tony lived 17 wearisome years confined to a chain-linked, concrete-slabbed cage. His bloodline hailed from midway throughout the planet, the place tigers prowled as apex predators within the depths of Rajasthan’s subtropical jungles and Siberia’s snow-blanketed birch forests.

Bengal tigers have referred to as the Indian subcontinent house for nicely over 10,000 years. In the meantime, the biggest of the subspecies, the Siberian tiger, have trekked components of East Asia and Russian Far East for maybe longer. In distinction, Tony spent almost his complete life as an exhibit for drivers and passersby, simply off Interstate 10, at a truck cease and fuel station. The stench of diesel fumes and the racket of vans had been a part of Tony’s each day life till he was euthanized in 2017.

Tony the tiger in a roadside zoo.

Tony the tiger in a roadside zoo.
Picture: Animal Authorized Protection Fund

Sadly, Tony’s life story shouldn’t be distinctive. A broader, unchecked development of massive cat possession is afoot within the U.S. From coast to coast, an untracked variety of personal residents personal huge cats, amongst different wildlife. “Roadside zoos” are bobbing up, taking advantage of wildlife reveals and paid encounters. Amidst the covid-19 pandemic, roadside zoos are still in operation regardless of the danger of zoonotic disease spread.

“We all know that tigers are susceptible to covid-19, so proper now, they’re uncovered to an excellent larger danger as a few of these cub petting operations stay open through the pandemic,” stated Meredith Whitney, a wildlife rescue program officer on the Worldwide Fund for Animal Welfare.

The hazard of additional zoonotic illness unfold was unchecked earlier than the present pandemic and stays so. “What it actually factors to is that this can be a downside: to take huge cats or every other form of wildlife, and use them for human leisure and human interplay… inevitably, these interactions between people and massive cats are going to extend the possibilities of zoonotic illness transmission,” stated Alicia Prygoski, legislative affairs supervisor on the Animal Authorized Protection Fund.

Public well being danger is exacerbated by the innumerable quantity of captive huge cats within the U.S., which has expanded resulting from rampant breeding.

Different huge cats akin to jaguars, cheetahs, and lions are additionally exhibited at roadside zoos throughout the nation, however tigers are the commonest. The trade is essentially unregulated on the state and federal ranges, which creates important difficulties in gaining a tally of all the large cats in captivity.

Conservative estimates recommend that 10,000 to 20,000 big cats are captive in roadside zoos, menageries, and other people’s properties. Of that quantity, a low-ball estimate of 7,000 are tigers alone. Netflix’s sequence Tiger King shined gentle on only a nook of this huge cat world that operates within the shadows.

Even the bottom estimate of U.S. captive tigers remains to be larger than the estimated 3,890 remaining within the wild. Whereas some subspecies just like the Bengal tiger are lastly repopulating and following an upward development, most tigers’ story is grim.

As soon as roaming from the reaches japanese Turkey to Java’s shores, three of the 9 authentic tiger species have gone extinct, and those who stay are hanging on by a thread. Over the previous century, wild tiger populations have declined by 95 percent. Certainly, conserving these huge cats is at a crucial tipping level.

As wild tigers and different huge cats are in dire want of safety of their native habitats, their captive counterparts on our distant shores are harming their very conservation. From doubtlessly feeding the unlawful commerce in tiger components to impacting particular person livelihood, the U.S. captive-keeping of massive cats has a rippling impact that’s now gaining recognition. And as growing scientific proof exhibits, ignoring animal welfare undermines species conservation.

Roadside zoos and cub-petting tourism

As apex predators, tigers have developed to cowl vast territory, usually grasslands and forests. In Bangladesh, a tiger requires eight sq. miles (20.eight sq. kilometers), whereas in Siberia, a tiger defends an space that may attain as much as 385 sq. miles (997 sq. kilometers).

The biggest of the large cats, a tiger, can measurement as much as 12 ft (3.7 meters) in size and weigh as much as 660 pounds (300 kilograms).

At present, these highly effective predators are saved in a neighbor’s yard or confined in a shaky, makeshift cage smaller than a one-car storage. They’re paraded round within the cramped enclosures of a roadside zoo, alongside droves of different unique wildlife folks pay to go to.

Within the final a number of a long time, throughout varied components of the U.S., a tiger and massive cat cub breeding cottage trade has emerged. One of many largest of those operations was the backdrop to the Netflix docuseries Tiger King. 

Within the early days of the covid-19 pandemic, with lockdowns in place, People turned engrossed within the human drama that unfolded on this Netflix docuseries. For the primary time, throughout the nation, the general public was uncovered to captive tiger retaining and their exploitation going down within the U.S.

Nonetheless, the professionals engaged on the frontlines of tiger rescues and massive cat protections consider that the docuseries missed the mark.

A tiger in Arkansas lived in a small, overgrown cage that was no longer structurally sound before being rescued. With support from IFAW, this tiger was rescued and moved to nearby GFAS accredited sanctuary, Turpentine Creek Wildlife Refuge.

A tiger in Arkansas lived in a small, overgrown cage that was now not structurally sound earlier than being rescued. With assist from IFAW, this tiger was rescued and moved to close by GFAS accredited sanctuary, Turpentine Creek Wildlife Refuge.
Picture: IFAW

“The unlucky a part of Tiger King is the oddity and craziness of the people, and their battle there turned the overarching theme,” commented Angela Grimes, the chief govt officer of Born Free USA, “and what was actually missed within the present, on the a part of the viewers, is the animal cruelty. That appeared to be secondary to the principle storyline of the people.”

Basically, the cruelty inflicted on the animals lies within the ease with which one might develop into an enormous cat exhibitor. Alicia Prygoski of ALDF defined, “once we’re speaking about acquiring a license to exhibit huge cats, it’s very simple to get that preliminary license, and it’s comparatively cheap.”

“These trying to get hold of a license ought to have to point out that they’re in a position to present long-term care to their animals, in addition to veterinary care, psychological stimulation, and enough area,” Prygoski continues, “however sadly, there’s a actually low bar presently for acquiring a license… and it leads to horrifying abuse and neglect of animals at roadside zoos.”

These services are reaping a revenue from paid interplay classes and paid “tiger selfies” and different Instagrammable picture ops with wildlife—these rapid-fire classes are taxing on each the cats’ bodily and psychological well being.

“When somebody takes a promenade picture with a fully-grown tiger, that tiger might should be drugged to ensure that them to be sedate sufficient to permit that to occur,” stated Angela Grimes, the chief govt officer of Born Free USA. “Whether or not they’re or they aren’t [drugged], that could be a very harmful state of affairs for the human… and the situations that these animals are saved in, the best way they’re handled, typically crushed and subdued, in order that they’ll act a sure approach round people shouldn’t be their pure habits.”

Grimes added, “this can be a unstable state of affairs that’s all about revenue, it’s not involved for the animals, and it’s not involved for the people.”

The bodily abuse endured by tiger cubs bred in cub petting services leads to life-long well being points.

“Separating tiger cubs from their moms mere days and even minutes after start may be very worrying and traumatic for the cubs and the mom,” Meredith Whitney of IFAW stated. “When cubs are pulled for use for cub petting companies, they’re typically [intentionally] undernourished, so that they keep smaller longer and keep hungry for extra paying prospects to feed.”

In tiger rescues carried out by IFAW, Whitney has discovered that “cubs are sometimes sick and malnourished” and that each “cubs and adults present proof of metabolic bone illness which leads to bone deformities, fractures, organ failure, and generally loss of life.”

The Humane Society carried out three undercover investigations of cub petting services. The findings had been constant. Excessive and chronic animal abuse involving round the clock dealing with for shoppers, bodily punishment by keepers, filthy enclosures, medical neglect, malnourishment, intentional meals deprivation, and untreated contagious infections. At one facility, a 3-week previous tiger cub named Sarabi, contaminated with ringworm, was handled by 27 people simply after she arrived from a 19-hour automobile experience.

The method of breeding new tigers is commonly relentlessly abusive to the moms as nicely. “Tigers used for breeding are compelled to offer start two to a few occasions a 12 months, in contrast as soon as each few years within the wild,” stated Alicia Prygoski of ALDF.

The conservation lie

A majority of services try to steer guests that they’re conserving tigers. These zoos and roadside points of interest make the pitch that paying to go to can save the species from the brink. However the actuality is much completely different.

A tiger living in a small cage with accumulated waste awaits rescue. This is one of 24 tigers that IFAW worked with NJ state law enforcement officers to rescue from a private owner.

A tiger dwelling in a small cage with collected waste awaits rescue. That is considered one of 24 tigers that IFAW labored with NJ state legislation enforcement officers to rescue from a non-public proprietor.
Picture: IFAW

“Some locations declare that it’s a conservation service that they supply by breeding these animals,” stated Kathy Blachowski, program supervisor on the Huge Cat Sanctuary Alliance. “These exotics which might be bred and born within the U.S., they in no form or kind, could possibly be launched into the wild.”

Leigh Henry, director of wildlife coverage at WWF, the biggest international conservation group, attested that this type of “breeding tigers in captivity shouldn’t be conservation.”

Some huge cat encounter services, like Doc Antle’s Myrtle Seashore Safari—considered one of most prolific tiger breeders within the nation who additionally appeared in Tiger King—declare that they aren’t simply contributing to conservation however conserving the rarest of tigers, the white tiger.

“These locations play on prospects by claiming that they’re ‘royal Bengal white tigers,’ that they’re ‘very uncommon’ or ‘almost extinct,’ however they’re only a colour variation of a Bengal tiger. They don’t or not often naturally happen within the wild. And to supply them captivity, they should be very, very closely inbred, which results in quite a lot of genetic deformities,” stated Lisa Wathne of the Humane Society.

To breed a white tiger takes quite a lot of compelled inbreeding of father to daughter, brother to sister, and the like. Whereas which will yield a tiger with a putting coat, it additionally leads to critical well being points.

“A few of them have misformed hips, quite a lot of them have points with their bone improvement, many white tigers are cross-eyed and have issues with their imaginative and prescient,” defined Blachowski of BCSA.

Many of those inbred tigers are born with unfavorable options, deformities, and diseases. They rapidly show unusable for customer exhibition, and most frequently, exhibitors promptly slaughter these ‘imperfect’ tiger cubs.

“Doc Antle in South Carolina has admitted that he routinely euthanizes any white tiger cubs born cross-eyed,” Wathne stated. Regardless of it being unlawful, he and others get away with exterminating huge cats. This outright slaughter is a failing on the a part of the Division of Agriculture (USDA), which has perpetually deserted their position to implement the Animal Welfare Act.

Statistics on the Animal Welfare Act

Statistics on the Animal Welfare Act
Graphic: ASPCA

Along with the evident animal abuse points at hand, the conservation worth is nonexistent, regardless of what roadside zoos declare. Many tigers are crossbred––like Tony on the truck cease––in addition to inbred and undernourished.

“Generic tigers cross two or extra tiger subspecies, that’s not a tiger you’ll discover within the wild. Professionally run zoos are breeding for conservation functions and with very cautious consideration for his or her genetics,” Tracie Letterman, vp of federal affairs on the Humane Society Legislative Fund defined.

The enchantment of those roadside zoos and encounter services is compelling for individuals who wish to get up-close to a charismatic animal. And that rather more engaging, with the false pitch of contributing to species conservation. “These locations mislead customers consistently and benefit from people who find themselves already inclined to like animals,” stated Carson Barylak, campaigns supervisor at IFAW.

“It seems like one of the best deal on this planet—if you happen to can each be type to a tiger in your presence, have the enjoyable, and the Instagram likes of getting a photograph snuggling with a tiger, and presume that you simply’re serving to to guard its wild counterparts, after all, that’s convincing to folks,” Barylak stated.

Like most different animals, tiger cubs develop rapidly. As predators, they quickly acquire power and develop into harmful at a comparatively younger age.

To exhibitors, a cub’s utility exists for less than a short while, and after twelve to 14 weeks of age, they’ll now not be dealt with by paying guests. Lisa Wathne of the Humane Society stated, “however after all the breeding retains going as a result of they’ve received to maintain supplying increasingly cubs for these very profitable picture ops.”

What occurs to most cubs as soon as they outgrow their use at cub petting services is usually unknown. Some “spend the remainder of their lives in tiny cages, at roadside zoos, or pseudo-sanctuaries,” defined Wathne, whereas others are “shunted into the pet-trade,” and “a few of them are in all probability killed.”

In the meantime, it’s speculated that “others find yourself on the black market to be offered for his or her physique components,” stated Ben Williamson, applications director of World Animal Safety. Whereas this but to be documented, it’s an overarching concern for large cat conservationists.

“Below this poor regulation, America’s captive tigers may simply be filtering into unlawful commerce and perpetuating or stimulating shopper demand for his or her components and merchandise,” defined Leigh Henry of WWF.

At first look, tiger and massive cat retaining within the U.S. look like an remoted difficulty, however in actuality, it’s impacting even their family within the distant wild.

“It’s actually only a very merciless cycle of breeding, exploiting, after which dumping of tigers––that finally, is the basis explanation for many of the issues we see relating to captive tigers within the U.S.,” asserted Wathne of the Humane Society.

The legislation

The cruelty inflicted on huge cats at roadside zoos and exhibitor services is finished so in direct violation of the legal guidelines meant to work collectively to guard wildlife––the Animal Welfare Act, the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and state cruelty statutes.

At present, any facility that receives cash in change for exhibiting captive animals should be licensed by the Division of Agriculture (USDA) underneath the Animal Welfare Act and adjust to the legislation.

Tigers and lions are protected underneath the ESA, which prohibits the harming, harassing, and killing of those animals. “Harassment consists of that they can’t annoy an animal to such an extent that it considerably disrupts the animal’s regular behavioral patterns,” Daniel Waltz, a workers legal professional at ALDF, defined on a webinar relating to captive huge cats.

Waltz expanded, “robust legal guidelines are solely nearly as good as their enforcement. And for a lot of causes, some I perceive and don’t perceive, federal and state authorities officers have been unable or unwilling to implement the legal guidelines which might be on the books.”

“The USDA information animal inventories after they examine services which might be open to the general public, however these inventories solely symbolize the animals which might be seen by the inspector through the go to, not essentially the entire animals on the facility,” Meredith Whitney of IFAW stated. She additionally famous that the company doesn’t examine services that aren’t open to the general public, together with personal menageries and breeders.

The failings of the USDA turned even worse previously three and a half years.

“Again in early February 2017, the USDA purged 1000’s and 1000’s of information from its web site,” together with inspection experiences and enforcement actions, stated Delci Winders, director of Animal Regulation Litigation Clinic on the Lewis and Clark Regulation College.

The reasoning behind the info scrub is murky. Winders stated it doubtless mirrored the USDA attempting to cover its personal failings at enforcement long-term and the truth that issues have gotten worse in recent times underneath the Trump administration.

IFAW supported the rescue of 5 tigers and 1 black bear from a failing facility in Ohio to sanctuaries in Nevada and California.

IFAW supported the rescue of 5 tigers and 1 black bear from a failing facility in Ohio to sanctuaries in Nevada and California.
Picture: IFAW

Between 2016 and 2019, USDA enforcement of the Animal Welfare Act dropped by 93 percent.

Alongside a coalition of nonprofits, together with PETA, Born Free USA, and the Physicians Committee for Accountable Drugs, Professor Winders sued the USDA to revive their deleted information.

In Might, they partially gained that combat. “However the class the place [the USDA officials] haven’t restored is enforcement actions. Nothing earlier was restored from the enforcement actions; solely new enforcement actions have been posted.”

Regardless of new inspections being made public, precise enforcement continues to weaken. On the finish of July 2020, an inspection report was launched for Jeff Lowe, the person who acquired Joe Unique’s zoo. “With a slew of horrific violations on huge cats, his license ought to have been suspended instantly,” Winders attested.

“If you have a look at the details, animals are struggling,” Winders noticed, “and their [the USDA officials] job is to guard these animals.”

Public security

Privately held captive tigers and massive cats interacting with folks pose a public well being and security danger as nicely.

“Clearly, huge cats are apex predators, and they also pose a critical security danger, whether or not it’s to the general public and even in one of the best of conditions, akin to AZA-accredited zoos, to the individuals who work with them,” shared Lisa Wathne. “One mistake will be all it takes for a fatality to occur or a really critical harm.”

Since 1990, the Humane Society has documented over 400 dangerous incidents involving captive huge cats in 46 states and the District of Columbia.

“Lots of locations like roadside zoos or locations that breed huge cats don’t even have correct containment for these animals,” stated Blachowski of BCSA. “There are cases the place exotics have gotten out as a result of they [private keepers] should not have the correct containment for these animals, and put the general public and first responders into hurt’s approach.”

Some of the dramatic incidents came about in Ohio in October 2011, referred to as the “Zanesville Massacre.” The tragic occasion put the group and first responders at risk when a person launched 56 wild animals into the city, together with tigers, lions, and leopards.

With zero coaching on the way to deal with a excessive quantity of harmful, wild animals on the streets, first responders had little alternative however to shoot down the bulk.

Related instances of harmful, unique animals on the free pop up across the nation far too frequently. And first responders are sometimes the primary to get caught within the focus of a 12-foot-long huge cat predator. When a tiger breaks free from its flimsy cage and runs rampant by way of the suburbs, or when a lion seems in somebody’s front room, police discover themselves face-to-face with a horrible state of affairs.

“Police or fireplace officers are responding to a scene, they usually don’t know that there’s a tiger within the basement in the home. It’s a hazard they shouldn’t be uncovered to and one thing they’re not skilled for, they usually shouldn’t ever should be skilled for,” defined Meredith Whitney of IFAW.

In response to the occasion in 2011, Ohio enacted more significant state restrictions on the possession and breeding of harmful wild animals.

Along with outright corporal hazards, the dealing with of massive cats and different wildlife poses one other menace to public well being: the unfold of zoonotic illness from animal to human.

“With cub petting, there are completely different illnesses that may be unfold from these younger cubs who haven’t been correctly cared for and are interacting with the general public,” stated Kathy Blachowski of BCSA.

On condition that the covid-19 virus spawned from human-animal contact, the perpetuation of those cub-petting roadside zoos and their continued operation amidst the present pandemic is acutely regarding.

“What the coronavirus has taught us is that we can not neglect the illness transmission from wildlife animals any longer,” stated Ben Williamson of World Animal Safety. “We’ve recognized for years that wild animals in worrying conditions are simply hotbeds for pathogens and potential illness dangers, and we ignored it, and we didn’t do a factor about it.” Willamson concluded, “and now, the coronavirus taught us the laborious lesson: that we are able to now not ignore these variables.”

Laws on huge cat retaining differ by state. Some have strict legal guidelines, and a few permit the follow to exist with no oversight. Six states within the U.S. don’t have any statutes relating to retaining huge cats captive, whereas 13 states permit huge cats with a permit or license.

Illustration for article titled America’s Hidden Big Cat Problem

Graphic: Animal Authorized Protection Fund

“Proper now, there’s piecemeal laws all through completely different states. Some states have a complete ban on possession; some states don’t have any ban on possession. And there’s actually no federal legal guidelines that precisely shield huge cats and possession in america,” stated Kate Blachowski of BCSA.

“Many states do have bans on personal possession of massive cats, however actually we’d like a uniform federal legislation,” asserted Alicia Prygoski of ALDF.

There’s a invoice aiming to just do that.

Hope

In January 2019, U.S. Home Representatives Brian Fitzpatrick (R-Pa.) and Mike Quigley (D-In poor health.) co-introduced a invoice referred to as the Huge Cat Public Security Act (H.R. 1380). If handed, this invoice will amend the Lacey Act and create complete federal laws to control huge cat retaining and ban public contact.

Rep. Quigley shared with Gizmodo {that a} determination on the invoice could also be imminent. “I believe we’ll [vote] on the newest by the top of September.”

The Home invoice has 220 bipartisan co-sponsors and, in June, efficiently handed the Home Committee of Pure Assets.

In fact, amidst the pandemic, quite a lot of payments are taking a backseat. “Whereas we’re coping with different crucial points, we wish to cope with the humane points on this and the protection points that include it as nicely,” shared Rep. Quigley.

The invoice goals to limit the possession and exhibition of massive cats. If handed, it could ban direct contact between the general public and massive cats, successfully ending cub petting and interactive classes.

“It might prohibit public contact, so petting and selfies, these actions can be prohibited,” defined Prygoski of ALDF. “By banning direct public contact, the Huge Cat Public Security Act will lower the demand for cubs and thus lower the variety of huge cats who’re being bred for this merciless trade.”

“What we tried to do was to get one thing to go as a serious first step,” shared Rep. Quigley. “It prohibits the breeding of any huge cat outdoors of accredited zoos or research-educational services. If you have already got a cat, it could be required to register it with the USDA. And naturally, it outlaws personal possession of any of the large cats besides at extremely certified services.”

By requiring folks to register their huge cats with the USDA, for the primary time, the U.S. would acquire a tally on simply what number of captive tigers and massive cats exist throughout the nation.

Given the current shortcomings of the USDA relative to enforcement, some considerations come up on how efficient the invoice will likely be even when it does go. Delci Winders, who sued the USDA on the 2017 knowledge purge, stated, “I’m grateful the Huge Cat Public Security Act provides important accountability assigned to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which has not proven these similar failings.”

Those that already personal an enormous cat would be capable to maintain them per the ‘grandfather clause.’ “It’s a gradual however efficient transition, and it could forestall an instantaneous inflow of massive cats into sanctuaries,” defined Prygoski of ALDF. “That is essentially the most commonsense solution to deal with the truth that there are literally thousands of huge cats in personal palms proper now throughout the nation.”

“There are those that initially stated we should always make it unlawful even when you have already got a [big] cat, which we foresaw as being an even bigger hurdle at this time limit,” talked about Rep. Quigley.

Whereas some activists really feel that this invoice doesn’t go far sufficient on imposing extra important restrictions on huge cat retaining, Angela Grimes of Born Free USA argued, “it’s higher to make this alteration to remove the personal possession than to go for an all-out ban that has no hope of passing.”

The invoice has garnered a variety of assist; nonetheless, extra steps than simply passing the Home might want to happen. “Even when it passes the Home, it nonetheless has not moved ahead within the Senate, though it’s a bipartisan measure,” defined Carson Barylak of IFAW.

It’s unknown when the Senate model of the invoice, which presently has solely 23 co-sponsors, is about for a vote.

Having the invoice go won’t solely safeguard animal welfare and shield the general public, however it’ll additionally assist tiger and massive cat conservation within the wild.

“The Huge Cat Public Security Act would go a protracted solution to guaranteeing that the U.S. minimizes its danger of contributing to any unlawful commerce in tiger components and merchandise,” stated Ben Williamson of World Animal Safety.

With the invoice’s passing, the U.S. would regain some misplaced credibility on the world stage. “The magnitude of the large cat downside we now have right here in america is definitely harming our diplomatic and conservation efforts overseas,” stated Dylewsky of AWI.

In Asia and South Africa, tiger and lion farms threaten the species’ conservation efforts. “The U.S. authorities needs to shut these sorts of farms as a result of it’s integral to saving huge cats within the wild,” stated Williamson of World Animal Safety, “however we simply have zero credibility on the difficulty due to our giant, poorly regulated inhabitants of massive cats within the U.S.”

“The present scale of captive breeding operations inside tiger farms is a major impediment to the safety and restoration of untamed tiger populations,” pressured Leigh Henry of WWF. “They undermine and complicate enforcement efforts and assist to perpetuate the demand for tiger components and merchandise.”

Tiger and different huge cat species are in danger from human pressures. And our actions within the U.S. are impacting tiger populations as far-off as Sumatra.

“It’s all linked”

The US’ lack of oversight on these apex predators’ commerce takes a grim toll on their conservation and sustaining their place within the wild. Animal abuse, species conservation, public security, and public well being considerations are the assorted components intersecting in America’s unresolved affair with possessing captive tigers and massive cats in our backyards and as brazen types of leisure.

“It’s all linked: Our mistreatment of tigers displays on our mistreatment of bats and pangolins,” stated Ben Williamson of World Animal Safety. “We have to get our personal home so as earlier than we are able to condemn the remedy of untamed animals by different international locations. And the Huge Cat Public Security Act goes a protracted solution to doing that and giving us the ethical authority to go on the market and shut down high-risk wildlife markets.”

Tony, the Bengal-Siberian tiger, at his truck cease in Louisiana, beside the clamor of 40-ton freight vans thundering close to his cage, by no means knew what his current ancestors savored––the scent of freshly dampened grasslands after an Indian monsoon, the crackling sound of oak leaves beneath his paws in japanese Russia’s woodlands.

Tony’s story can develop into a part of a forgotten previous if we’ll it.

As a substitute, his story will be honored by a collective effort that leads humanity to vary course and remodel how we work together with wildlife. Tigers, lions, and different unique animals can reside life as they’re meant to––within the bounds of nature.

Rina Herzl is a contract journalist masking urgent environmental and wildlife conservation points. She has authored articles for Earther, Earth Island Journal, Mongabay, and EcoWatch.

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Rina Herzl

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